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- 담당교수Joo-Yeon Yoo
The phagophore expands into autophagosomes in close proximity to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit sites (ERESs). Here, we propose that a single-pass ER transmembrane protein, SHISA5/SCOTIN, acts as an autophagy suppressor under basal condition by blocking the contact between the phagophore and ERES. HeLa cells lacking SHISA5 displayed higher levels of macroautophagy/autophagy. The enhanced autophagy in SHISA5 KO cells requires class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex I (PtdIns3K-C1) activity and functional assembly of ERES, but not ULK1 activity. A proximity ligation assay (PLA) of SEC16A (Sec16 homolog A, endoplasmic reticulum export factor)-WIPI2 (WD repeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting 2) and SEC31A (Sec31 homolog A, COPII coat complex component)-MAP1LC3B/LC3B (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta) demonstrated that contact between the ERES and phagophore increased in SHISA5 KO cells, and the cytosolic domain of SHISA5 was sufficient to rescue this phenotype. Close proximity between ERES and phagophore in SHISA5 KO cells was also visualized by performing an ultrastructure correlative image analysis of SEC31A associated with LC3-positive membranes. Furthermore, we observed that SHISA5 was located near ERES under basal conditions, but displaced away from ERES under autophagy-inducing conditions. These data suggest that SHISA5 functions to block spontaneous contact between ERES and phagophore, and the blockage effect of SHISA5 should be relieved for the proper induction of autophagy.
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